- Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: The majority of patients have an indication for extracorporeal lithotripsy. But the success of the method depends on many factors including the size, location, composition and hardness of the stone. In addition, patient’s body type plays an important role (i.e obesity). During extracorporeal lithotripsy, the patient lies on a device called Lithotripter. Fluoroscopy is used to recognize and target the stone. Ultrasonic waves are emitted from the device and fragment the stone. Therefore, the above procedure is minimally invasive.
- Percutaneous lithotripsy: This method is performed by percutaneous puncture of the kidney under fluoroscopic guidance, introduction of special endoscopic wires and placement of a special sheath that provides a channel between the skin and kidneys. Through this channel a tool called nephroscope is introduced, the stone is recognized and disintegrated by the use of ultrasonic lithotripter. The fragments are removed with the aid of an endoscopic forceps.
It is worth noting that there are two types of nephroscope, the rigid and the flexible nephroscope. The above instruments method provide solution to renal lithiasis with minimal burden on the health of the patient and treat successfully even large stones that occupy the entire cavity of the kidney drainage (staghorn stones). Renal stones that have failed conservative or extracorporeal lithotripsy treatment have also indication for percutaneous nephrolithotripsy. Practically, all kidney stones can be treated with this method.
- Postoperative course